SOME FACTORS WHICH MAY AFFECT THE ATTAINMENT OF IMPLICIT AND EXPLICIT KNOWLEDGE IN LEARNING ENGLISH AS A SECOND / FOREIGN LANGUAGE
Web of Science: 000449158800006
South West University, Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria
This article is an attempt to shed some more light on certain factors, related to individual differences in the process of second/foreign language acquisition/learning, proven by previous research in the field of second language acquisition (SLA). These are factors which may affect the final attainment of adult learners' implicit and explicit knowledge of English as a second/foreign language and their proficiency. A study based on empirical data collected from a sample of 103 participants, through a battery of tests, aimed at tapping into the attainment of implicit or explicit knowledge of ESL/EFL, was conducted to explore certain factors such as: starting age of learning; length of exposure to English as a second/foreign language in a target language country; length of learning and type of input received, which have a statistically significant impact on attainment and on ESL/EFL proficiency. The results were analysed using SPSS software.
Key words: second language acquisition, implicit knowledge, implicit learning, explicit knowledge, explicit learning, attainment of L2 proficiency, contextual SLA factors
Submitted: 30 November 2015;
Reviewed: 18 December 2015;
Revised: 30 December 2015;
Accepted: 30 December 2015;
Published: 31 December 2015
Gotseva, Mariana. (2015). Some factors which may affect the attainment of implicit and explicit knowledge in learning English as a second / foreign language. English Studies at NBU, 1(2), 85-100. https://doi.org/10.33919/esnbu.15.2.6
Copyright © 2015 Mariana Gotseva
This open access article is published and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0), which permits non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. If you want to use the work commercially, you must first get the authors' permission.
Anderson, J., Matessa, M., & Lebiere, C. (1997). ACT-R: a theory of higher level cognition and its relation to visual attention. Human-Computer Interaction, 12, 439-462. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327051hci1204_5
Bialystok, E., & Hakuta, K. (1994). In other words: the science and psychology of second language acquisition. Basic Books.
Birdsong, D. (Ed.). (1999). Second language acquisition and the critical period hypothesis. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781410601667
Birdsong, D. (2005). Nativelikeness and non-nativelikeness in L2A research. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 43, 319-328. https://doi.org/10.1515/iral.2005.43.4.319
Birdsong, D., & Molis, M. (2001). On the evidence for maturational constraints on second language acquisition. Journal of Memory and Language, 44, 235–249. https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.2000.2750
Christiansen, M., & Chater, N. (Eds.). (2001). Connectionist Psycholinguistics. Westport, CO.
Ellis, A. W., & Young, A.W. (1988). Human Cognitive Neuropsychology. Erlbaum.
Ellis, N. (Ed.). (1994). Implicit and Explicit Learning of Languages. Academic Press.
Ellis, N. (2005). At the interface: dynamic interactions of explicit and implicit language knowledge. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27, 305–352. https://doi.org/10.1017/S027226310505014X
Ellis, N. (2008). Implicit and explicit knowledge about language. In J. Cenoz & N. H. Hornberger (Eds.), Encyclopaedia of Language and Education, Volume 6: Knowledge about Language, (pp. 119-132), 2nd Edition. Springer.
Ellis, R. (2008). The study of second language acquisition (2nd Edition). Oxford University Press.
Ellis, R., Loewen, S., Elder, C., Erlam, R., Philp, J., & Reinders, H. (2009). Implicit and explicit knowledge in second language learning, testing and teaching. Multilingual Matters. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847691767-004
Elman, J.L., Bates, E.A., Johnson, M.H., Karmiloff-Smith, A., Parisi, D., & Plunkett, K. (1996). Rethinking Innateness: a connectionist perspective on development. MIT Press.
Haznedar, B., & Gavruseva, E. (Eds.). (2008). Current Trends in Child Second Language Acquisition. John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/lald.46
Johnson, J., & Newport, E. (1989). Critical period effects in second language learning: The influence of maturational state on the acquisition of English as a second language. Cognitive Psychology, 21, 60–99. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0285(89)90003-0
Long, M. (2005). Problems with supposed counterevidence to the Critical Period Hypothesis. International Review of Applied Linguistics 43(4), 287–317. https://doi.org/10.1515/iral.2005.43.4.287
Muñoz, C. (2008). Symmetries and asymmetries of age effects in naturalistic and instructed L2 learning. Applied Linguistics, 29(4), 578- 96. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amm056
Pienemann, M. (1989). Is language teachable? Psycholinguistic experiments and hypotheses. Applied Linguistics, 10, 52-79. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/10.1.52
Reber, A.S. (1976). Implicit learning of synthetic languages: The role of instructional set. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 2, 88–94. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-73126.96.36.199
Rothman, J., & Guijarro-Fuentes, P. (2010). Input quality matters: some comments on input type and age effects in SLA. Applied Linguistics, 31, 301-306. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amq004
Schacter, D.L. (1987). Implicit memory: history and current status, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 13, 501–518. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-73188.8.131.521
Schwartz, B. (2003). Child L2 acquisition: paving the way. In B. Beachley, A. Brown & F. Conlin (Eds.), Proceedings of the 27th Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development (pp. 26-50). Somerville, MA: Cascarilla Press.
Squire, L., & Kandel, E. (1999). Memory: from mind to molecules. Scientific American Library, New York.