EMOTIONS ACROSS THE ESSAY: WHAT SECOND-LANGUAGE WRITERS FEEL ACROSS FOUR WEEKS’ WRITING A RESEARCH ESSAY
Vol.5, Issue 1, 2019, pp.114-134 Full text
DOI https://doi.org/10.33919/esnbu.19.1.6 ☍
Christina A. DeCoursey https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7930-8352 ☍
Affiliation: Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russian Federation
Aliaa N. Hamad
Affiliation: American University in Cairo, Cairo, Egypt
Conceptualization; Investigation; Methodology; Validation; Writing original draft; Writing – review and editing; Resources: C. A. DeC. (lead); A. N. H. (supporting);
Pekrun’s (2000, 2006) questionnaire-based model of academic emotions is widely used. However, Appraisal analysis of qualitative data offers richer detail. This study used Appraisal analysis to assess the subjective attitudes realised by students across four weeks during which they wrote an essay. Results indicate that judgments and appreciations were nearly as frequently-realised as emotions, and the distribution and attitudinal profile differed in all 4 weeks of the task. Positive and negative realisations of capacity, quality, impact and complexity resembled a typical U-shaped learning curve. Polarity suggested that week 3 was the most difficult for participants, and negative emotional dispositions increased across the task where negative surges peaked in weeks 2 and 3. This study highlights the value of Appraisal analysis in detailing the subjective attitudes evoked by academic emotions. It suggests that emotion-focused questionnaires exclude relevant content, concluding for a small set of emotions before sufficient study has been undertaken.
Keywords: academic achievement, academic emotions, second-language writing, essay-writing, Appraisal analysis, subjective attitudes
Received: 14 December 2018;
Reviewed: 23 January 2019;
Revised: 10 April 2019;
Accepted: April 2019;
Published: 1 June 2019
DeCoursey, C. A., & Hamad, A. N. (2019). Emotions Across the Essay: What Second-language Writers Feel across Four Weeks’ Writing a Research Essay. English Studies at NBU, 5(1), 114-134. https://doi.org/10.33919/esnbu.19.1.6 ☍
Copyright © 2019 Christina A. DeCoursey and Aliaa N. Hamad
This open access article is published and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0), which permits non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. If you want to use the work commercially, you must first get the authors' permission.
Ainley, M. (2007). Being and feeling interested: Transient state, mood, and disposition. In Schutz, P. A. & Pekrun, R. (Eds.) Emotion in education (pp. 147-163). Burlington: Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012372545-5/50010-1 ☍
Argamon, S., Bloom, K., Esuil, A. & Sebastiani, F. (2007). Automatically determining attitude type and force for sentiment analysis. Proceedings of the 3rd language and technology conference (LTC ’07), Poznan, PL, 369-373.
Bednarek, M. (2009). Dimensions of evaluation: Cognitive and linguistic perspectives. Pragmatics & Cognition, 17(10) 146-175. https://doi.org/10.1075/pc.17.1.05bed ☍
Biber, D. (2006). Stance in spoken and written university registers. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 5(2), 97–116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2006.05.001 ☍
Brinton, L. (2008). The comment clause in English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511551789 ☍
Case, J., & Moelius, S. (2007). U-shaped, iterative, and iterative-with-counter learning. Machine Learning, 72(1-2), 172-186. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-72927-3_14 ☍
Craig, S., D'Mello, S., Witherspoon, A., & Graesser, A. (2008). Emote aloud during learning with AutoTutor: Applying the Facial Action Coding System to cognitive–affective states during learning. Cognition and Emotion, 22(5), 777-788. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699930701516759 ☍
Graesser, A. C., & D’Mello, S. (2012). Emotions during the learning of difficult material. In B. H. Ross, (Ed.), Psychology of learning and motivation, Volume 57 (pp. 183-225). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-394293-7.00005-4 ☍
Elfenbein, H.A. & Ambady, N. (2002). On the universality and cultural specificity of emotion recognition: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 128(2), 203-235. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.128.2.203 ☍
Ellsworth, P. (2013). Appraisal Theory: Old and new questions. Emotion Review 5(2), 125-131. https://doi.org/10.1177/1754073912463617 ☍
Fontaine, J., Scherer, K. & Soriano, C. (Eds.). (2013). Components of emotional meaning: A sourcebook. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199592746.001.0001 ☍
Graff, G., & Birkenstein, C. (2010). They say/I say: The moves that matter in persuasive writing. New York: Norton.
Halliday, M. (1985). Spoken and Written Language. Geelong, Victoria: Deakin University Press.
Halliday, M.A.K. & Matthiessen, C. (2004). An introduction to functional grammar. 3rd edition. Great Britain. Hodder Education.
Hunston, S., & Thompson, G. (2001). Evaluation in text: Authorial stance in the construction of discourse. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Linnenbrink-Garcia, L., & Pekrun, R. (2011). Students’ emotions and academic engagement: Introduction to the special issue. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36(1), 1-3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2010.11.004 ☍
Leech, G. N. (2014). The pragmatics of politeness. Oxford Studies in Sociolinguistics. Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195341386.001.0001 ☍
Martin, J.R. & White, P.R.R. (2005). The Language of Evaluation; Appraisal in English. UK, Palgrave Macmillan.
Martin, J.R. & Rose, D. (2008). Working with discourse: meaning beyond the clause. UK, Continuum.
Moors, A., Ellsworth, P., Scherer, K. & Frijda, N. (2013). Appraisal theories of emotion: State of the art and future development. Emotion Review, 5(2), 119-124. https://doi.org/10.1177/1754073912468165 ☍
O’Donnell, M. (2008). Demonstration of the UAM CorpusTool for text and image annotation. Proceedings of the ACL-08: HLT Demo Session (Companion Volume). Columbus, Ohio, Association for Computational Linguistics, 13-16. https://doi.org/10.3115/1564144.1564148 ☍
Pang, B., Lee, L. & Vaithyanathan, S. (2002). Thumbs up?: Sentiment classification using machine earning techniques. EMNLP '02 Proceedings of the ACL-02 conference on empirical methods in natural language processing, 10, 79-86. https://doi.org/10.3115/1118693.1118704 ☍
Panther, K., (1999). The potentiality for actuality metonymy in English and Hungarian, In Panther, K., and Radden, G. (eds.), Metonymy in language and thought (pp. 333-351), Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/hcp.4.19pan ☍
Paulhaus, D. & Vazire, S. (2007). The self-report method. In Robins, R., Fraley, R. & Krueger, R. (Eds.) Handbook of research methods in personality psychology (pp. 224-239), New York, Guildford Press.
Pekrun, R. (2000). A social-cognitive, control-value theory of achievement emotions. In J. Heckhausen (Ed.), Advances in psychology, 131. Motivational psychology of human development: Developing motivation and motivating development (pp. 143-163). New York, NY, US: Elsevier Science. [https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-4115(00)80010-2]
Pekrun, R. (2006). The control-value theory of achievement emotions: Assumptions, corollaries, and implications for educational research and practice. Educational psychology review, 18(4), 315-341. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-006-9029-9 ☍
Pekrun, R. (2010). Academic emotions. In T. Urdan (Ed.), APA educational psychology handbook, Vol. 2. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Pekrun, R. (2016). Academic emotions. In Wentzel, K. & Milele, D. (Eds.) Handbook of motivation at school (pp. 120-144). Abingdon: Routledge. https://www.routledgehandbooks.com/doi/10.4324/9781315773384.ch7 ☍
Pekrun, R., Elliot, A. J., & Maier, M. A. (2006). Achievement goals and discrete achievement emotions: A theoretical model and prospective test. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(1), 583-597. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06188.8.131.523 ☍
Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Titz, W., & Perry, R. P. (2002). Academic emotions in students' selfregulated learning and achievement: A program of qualitative and quantitative research. Educational psychologist, 37(2), 91-105. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15326985EP3702_4 ☍
Polanyi, L. & Zaenen, A. (2006). Computing attitude and affect in text: Theory and applications. Springer, USA.
Ramanathan, V., & Kaplan, R. (2000). Genres, authors, discourse communities: theory and application for L1 and L2 writing instructors. Journal of Second Language Writing, 9(2), 171-191. [https://doi.org/10.1016/S1060-3743(00)00021-7]
Scherer, K. R. (2000). Psychological models of emotion. The neuropsychology of emotion, 137(3), 137-162.
Scherer, K., Schoor, A., Johnstone, T. (eds) (2001). Appraisal processes in emotion: Theory, methods, research. Canary: Oxford University Press.
Subassic, P. & Huettner, A. (2001). Affect analysis of text using fuzzy semantic typing. IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, 9(4) 483-496. https://doi.org/10.1109/91.940962 ☍
Thompson, G., & Muntigl, P. (2008). Systemic functional linguistics: An interpersonal perspective. Handbook of interpersonal communication. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 107-132.
Wiebe, J., Wilson, T. & Cardie, C. (2005). Annotating expressions of opinions and emotions in language. Language Resources and Evaluation, 39(2-3), 165-210. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10579-005-7880-9 ☍
Weiner, B. (2007). Examining emotional diversity in the classroom: An attribution theorist considers the moral emotions. In Schutz, P., & Pekrun, R. (Eds.) Emotion in education (pp. 75-88). https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012372545-5/50006-X ☍
Wilson, T., Wiebe, J. & Hoffman, P. (2009). Recognizing contextual polarity: An exploration of features for phrase-level sentiment analysis. Computational Linguistics, 35(3), 399-433. https://doi.org/10.1162/coli.08-012-R1-06-90 ☍
Yang, C., Lin, K. & Chen, H. (2007). Building emotion lexicon from weblog corpora. Proceedings of the ACL 2007 demo and poster sessions. Prague, Czech Republic, 133-136. https://doi.org/10.3115/1557769.1557809 ☍
Zeidner, M. (2007). Chapter 10 - Test anxiety in educational contexts: Concepts, findings, and future directions. In Schutz, P. A. & Pekrun, R. (Eds.) Emotion in education (pp. 165-184). Burlington: Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012372545-5/50011-3 ☍
1. Reviewer's name: Svetlana Dimitrova-Gyuzeleva, PhD, New Bulgarian University
Publons Reviewer Profile
This is an original article exploring what learners in an academic context of study feel when they are tackling an academic task (such as the writing of a research article), i.e. what emotions and attitudes they have when they are learning. Subjective states have been recognised as significant to learning by many scholars (especially in the field of neurolinguistics), so the more valid data teachers have about how their students feel when they try to complete an academic task, the more they'll be in position to maximize on the affordances of the learning situation and lead their learners to success.
The unique contribution of the author of the manuscript is in illustrating the value of the Appraisal analysis of data over Pekrun’s model of studying academic emotions (or rather recommend their complementary use) through their use in one specific educational context.
The aim of the article is well defined (research limitations are also duly acknowledged), pertinent to tertiary education (but not only) and the claims are well supported through anecdotal and empirical evidence.
Both the theoretical framework and the literature review are well-developed and appropriate for the genre. Use of sources is correctly acknowledged (with only 1-2 lapses re references in the text).
The methodological approach is one of the strongest points of the manuscript - the two methods used for analysing students' self-report reflections are appropriate for addressing the research problem and revealing interesting traits in the empirical data.
The inferences and conclusions are clearly drawn from the findings, though - as the author admits - findings might be impacted by factors beyond his/her control (such as cultural and individual differences, the fact that students wrote in their second language and reflected on one type of academic task only, etc.). However, the interpretation of the influence of these factors on the findings could not be dealt within the scope of a single manuscript and, admittedly, was not the aim of the present article. Still, readers are made aware of the existence of these possible variables and the limitations of the present research.
The article is well-written and readable, with a coherent argument. There are some minor language problems occasionally which can easily be edited (see my comments in the manuscript itself).
No highly specialised knowledge is required - the article may be found beneficial by lecturers in other fields (not only philologists and psycholgists).
Review Verified on Publons: https://publons.com/p/14443942 ☍
2. Reviewer's name: Undisclosed
Review Content: Undisclosed
Review Verified on Publons
Handling Editor: Stan Bogdanov
Verified Editor Record on Publons: https://publons.com/p/14443942 ☍