MOROCCAN STUDENTS' ATTITUDES TOWARDS LOCAL AND FOREIGN LANGUAGES: THE ROLE OF SELF-DIRECTED AND LANGUAGE POLICY FORCES
Web of Science: 000607561000008
Abdelmajid Bouziane https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4138-2450
Faculty of Letters and Humanities Ben M’Sik, Hassan II University of Casablanca, Morocco
This article contributes to the hot debate on language preferences and choice at schools and society at large in Morocco from an empirical perspective. It investigates the Moroccan students' attitudes towards the languages they use in their daily interactions and those that are widely used in the Moroccan education system and attempts to explain whether these attitudes are driven by intrinsic forces or by the language policy orientations set by decision makers. To do so, 1,477 respondents belonging to different school levels and disciplines completed a survey about their frequency of use and mastery of languages, as well as their preferences of language use in the future. Findings show that Moroccan students have positive attitudes towards all languages and would like to use foreign languages for instrumental purposes. They also show that such positive attitudes do not depend on the level of mastery of these languages, nor on their use as mediums of instruction or communication. The findings imply that attitudes towards languages in Morocco are rooted in factors beyond the official policy orientations.
Keywords: Morocco, students' attitudes towards languages, motivation
Submitted: 1 August 2020
Reviewed: 21 October 2020
Revised: 29 October 2020
Accepted: 1 November 2020
Published: 21 December 2020
Bouziane, A. (2020). Moroccan Students' Attitudes Towards Local and Foreign Languages: The Role of Self-Directed and Language Policy Forces. English Studies at NBU, 6(2), 295-320. https://doi.org/10.33919/esnbu.20.2.7
Copyright © 2020 Abdelmajid Bouziane
This open access article is published and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0), which permits non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. If you want to use the work commercially, you must first get the authors' permission.
Acknowledgements: I am very grateful to the students who worked on this project for their great help with the collection of data. I am indebted to the reviewers of ESNBU for the pertinent remarks made on an early draft of this article.
Abassi, A. (1977). A Socio-linguistic analysis of multilingualism in Morocco. ['Unpublished doctoral dissertation']. University of Texas at Austin.
Anderson, C. (2013) "I Talk It and I Feel It": Language Attitudes of Moroccan University Students. ['Unpublished thesis']. Swarthmore College. http://hdl.handle.net/10066/12511
Amrous, N. (2020) L2 Motivational Self and English Department Students’ Intended Effort. In H. Belhiah, I. Zeddari, N. Amrous, & N. Bejjit (Eds.), English Language Teaching in Moroccan Higher Education (pp. 95-108). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3805-6_7
Azhar, A. (2020) English as an Alternative Cultural Capital for University EFL Students in Morocco. In H. Belhiah, I. Zeddari, N. Amrous, & N. Bejjit (Eds.), English Language Teaching in Moroccan Higher Education (pp. 65-81). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3805-6_5
Belhiah, H. (2020) English as a Global Language in Morocco: A Qualitative Study of Students' Motivations for Studying English. In H. Belhiah, I. Zeddari, N. Amrous, & N. Bejjit (Eds.), English Language Teaching in Moroccan Higher Education (pp. 33-48). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3805-6_3
Bentahila, A. (1983). Language Attitudes among Arabic-French Bilinguals in Morocco. Multilingual Matters 4.
Benzahaf, B. (2017). English and French Proficiency Development in High School in Eljadida Region: A Comparative Approach. ['Unpublished doctoral dissertation']. ElJadida: Faculty of Letters and Humanities.
Boum, A. (2008). The Political Coherence of Educational Incoherence: The Consequences of Educational Specialization in a Southern Moroccan Community. Anthropology and Education Quarterly 39(2), 205-223. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1548-1492.2008.00016.x
Boutieri, C. (2011). An ambivalent embrace: the cultural politics of Arabization and the knowledge economy in the Moroccan public school. ['Unpublished doctoral dissertation']. Princeton University.
Bouziane, A. (2011). English Language Profile: Morocco. ['Unpublished report']. The British Council].
Bouziane, A. (2018). L'enseignement des langues au Maroc: état des lieux et perspectives ['The teaching of languages in Morocco: State-of-the art and prospects']. Bassamat 08, 27-52.
Bouziane, A. (2020). Linguistic diversity in the Moroccan education system: (un)equal opportunities. In S. El Azhar (Ed.), Plural Morocco: Multiculturalism and Identity (pp.40-54). Faculty of Letters and Humanities Ben M'Sik.
Bouziane, A., & Rguibi, S. (2018). The role of Arabisation and French in the science students’ shift to university literary streams in Morocco. Cultures and Languages in Contact V (pp. 193-210). Faculty of Letters and Humanities, Ben M'Sik.
Bouzidi, H. (1989). Language attitudes and their implications for education: Morocco as a case study. ['Unpublished doctoral dissertation']. University of Glasgow. http://theses.gla.ac.uk/5371
Buckner, E. S. (2008). English Language Learning in the Context of Globalization: Insights from Morocco. In M. Hassim, M. Hammani, A. Chaibi, & M. Najbi (Eds.), Assessing Quality in Language Education: Focus on Teacher competencies, Educational materials, and Learner performances (pp. 115-158). Proceedings of the 28th annual MATE Conference held in El-Jadida, March 31- April 3, 2008.
Buckner, E. S. (2011). The Growth of English Language Learning in Morocco: Culture, Class, and Status Competition. In Ahmed Al-Issa & L. S. Dahan (Eds.), Global English and Arabic: Issues of Language, Culture, and Identity. Peter Lang.
Bullock, S. (2014). Language Ideologies in Morocco. Anthropology Department Honors Papers. Paper 11. http://digitalcommons.conncoll.edu/anthrohp/11
Chahhou, K. (2014). The Status of Languages in Post-Independent Morocco: Moroccan National Policies and Spanish Cultural Action. ['Unpublished doctoral dissertation']. City University of New York.
Chakrani, B. (2011). Covert Language Attitudes: A New Outlook on the Sociolinguistic Space of Morocco. In E. G. Bokamba, R. K. Shosted, & B. T. Ayalew (Eds.), Selected Proceedings of the 40th Annual Conference on African Linguistics (pp. 168-177). Cascadilla Proceedings Project. http://www.lingref.com/cpp/acal/40/paper2573.pdf
Chakrani, B & Huang, J. L. (2014). The work of ideology: examining class, language use, and attitudes among Moroccan university students. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 17(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2012.718319
COSEF (1999). National Charter for Education and Training. https://www.men.gov.ma/Fr/Pages/CNEF.aspx
Dahbi, M. (2003). The Moroccan Department of English. In A. Youssi; M. Dahbi, & L. Haddad. (Eds.), The Moroccan Character: Studies in Honor of Mohammed Abu-Talib (pp. 13-23). AMAPARTIL.
Dressman, M. (2019). Informal English Learning among Moroccan Youth. In M. Dressman, & R. M. Sadler (Eds.), The Handbook of Informal Language Learning (pp. 303-318). Wiley-Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119472384.ch20
Elinson, A. E. (2013). Darija and changing writing practices in Morocco. International Journal of Middle East Studies, 45(4), 715–730. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0020743813000871
Elbiad, M. (1991). The role of some population sectors in the progress of Arabization in Morocco. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 87, 27-44. https://doi.org/10.1515/ijsl.1991.87.27
Ennaji, M. (2002). Language Contact and Arabization in Morocco. In A. Rouchdy (Ed.), Language Contact and Language Conflict in Arabic. Routledge https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203037218-11
Ennaji, M. (2005). Multilingualism, cultural identity, and education in Morocco. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/b104063
Errihani, M. (2017) English Education Policy and Practice in Morocco. In R. Kirkpatrick (Ed.), English Language Education Policy in the Middle East and North Africa (pp. 215-231). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-46778-8_8
Et-tahiri, Y. (2019). Linguistic Attitudes of Moroccan University Students. ['Unpublished Master thesis']. Faculty of Arts and Humanities Ben M'Sik.
Ezzaki, A., Belfkih, M. C., & Melouk, M. (1985). The Reasons for Teaching English in Morocco: The Educators' Opinions. In Proceedings of the ELT Conference. Faculté des Sciences de l’Education.
Gardner, R. C., & Lambert, W. E. (1972). Attitudes and motivation in second language learning. Newbury House.
Gravel, L. (1979). A sociolinguistic investigation of multilingualism in Morocco. ['Unpublished doctoral dissertation']. Columbia University.
Guebels, V. (1976). La motivation pour les langues étrangères chez les lycéens de Rabat. ['Motivation for foreign languages by high school students in Rabat'] Ecole Normale Supérieure, Université Mohamed V.
Higher Council. (2015). For a School of Equity, Quality and Promotion: A Strategic Vision of Reform 2015-2030. Higher Council for Education, Training, and Scientific Research.
Hoogland, J. (2018). Darija in the Moroccan press: The case of the magazine Nichane. Sociolinguistic Studies, 12(2), 273–293. https://doi.org/10.1558/sols.35567
Hyde, M. (1994). The Teaching of English in Morocco: The Place of Culture. ELT Journal, 48(4), 295–305. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/48.4.295
Jaafari, T. (2019). Language Debates and the Changing Context of Educational Policy in Morocco. Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective, 14(2), 125-142. https://digitalcommons.kennesaw.edu/jgi/vol14/iss2/9
L'Economiste (2011). Les jeunes de 2011: Leurs colères, leurs tabous, leurs espoirs. [The 2011 Youth: their angers, taboos, and hopes] https://www.leconomiste.com/content/enquete-des-jeunes-2011
Marley, D. (2004). Language attitudes in Morocco following recent changes in language policy. Language Policy, 3, 25–46. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:LPOL.0000017724.16833.66
Mekouar, H. (2020). The Making of an English Department (1975–1982): A Personal Account. In Belhiah, H.; Zeddari, I.; Amrous, N.; &Bejjit, N. (Eds.), English Language Teaching in Moroccan Higher Education (pp.13-32). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3805-6_2
Ministry of Education (2008). Pour un nouveau souffle de la réforme: Présentation du Programme NAJAH 2009-2012, Rapport de synthèse.
Nadri, Y. & Haoucha, M. (2020). University Teachers' Perspectives on Adopting EMI in Morocco. In Belhiah, H.; Zeddari, I.; Amrous, N.; & Bejjit, N. (Eds.), English Language Teaching in Moroccan Higher Education (pp. 83-93). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3805-6_6
Official Bulletin (2019). 51.17 Law related to education, training, and scientific research. In Official Bulletin, n°6805, 19 August 2019, 5623- 5637. http://www.sgg.gov.ma/BO/AR/2019/BO_6805_Ar.pdf?ver=2019-08-28-130850-867
Ouakrime, M. (1986). English Language Teaching in Higher Education in Morocco: An Evaluation of the Fez Experience. ['Unpublished doctoral dissertation']. London Institute of Education.
Sadiq, F. (1991). The spread of English in Morocco. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 87, 99-114. https://doi.org/10.1515/ijsl.1991.87.99
Salmi, J. (1987). Language and schooling in Morocco. International Journal of Educational Development, 7(1), 21-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/0738-0593(87)90004-6
Sbaihi, M. (2001). Motivational and Attitudinal Variables Affecting Moroccan Learners of English. In MATE Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference (pp. 68-78). Essaouira, March 2001.
Yearous, J. (2012) French in the Face of Arabization: Language Attitudes among High School Students in Rabat. UW-L Journal of Undergraduate Research XV, 1-12. https://www.uwlax.edu/globalassets/offices-services/urc/jur-online/pdf/2012/yearous.janet.pdf
1. Reviewer's name: Undisclosed
Review Content: Assoc. Prof. Svetlana Dimitrova-Gyuzeleva, PhD, New Bulgarian University
Review Verified on Publons
2. Reviewer's name: Undisclosed
Review Content: Undisclosed
Review Verified on Publons
Handling Editor: Stan Bogdanov, PhD, New Bulgarian University
Verified Editor Record on Publons