GERTRUDE BONNIN ON SEXUAL MORALITY
Web of Science: 000658797400002
Tadeusz Lewandowski https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9067-2403
Institute of Literatures, University of Opole, Poland
Department of English and American Studies, University of Ostrava, Czech Republic
This paper examines attitudes to sexual morality held by the Yankton Dakota author and activist Gertrude Bonnin (1876-1938), better known by her penname Zitkála-Šá (Red Bird in Lakota). Bonnin's concerns encompass several themes: the victimization of Indidan women, didintegration of Native courtship rituals, sexual threats posed by peyote use, and the predatory nature of Euro-American men. This critique as a whole - in which a 'white invasion', in her words, leads to a corruption of Native sexuality - sometimes produces inconsistencies, particularly regarding Bonnin's statements on the alleged sexual perils of peyote. Her investigations into the Oklahoma guardianship scandals of the 1920s, however, strongly buttress recent research by Sarah Deer (2015), whose study, The Beginning and End of Rape: Confronting Sexual Violence in Native America, highlights the tragic aspects of Native-white sexual relations under United States settler-colonialism.
Keywords: Gertrude Bonnin, Zitkála-Šá, Native American, Sarah Deer, sexual morality, settler-colonialism
Submitted: 22 November 2020;
Reviewed: 6 December 2020;
Revised: 21 March 2021;
Accepted: 22 March 2021;
Published: 1 June 2021
Lewandowski, T. (2021). Gertrude Bonnin on Sexual Morality. English Studies at NBU, 7(1), 5-20. https://doi.org/10.33919/esnbu.21.1.1
Copyright © 2021 Tadeusz Lewandowski
This open access article is published and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0), which permits non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. If you want to use the work commercially, you must first get the authors' permission.
Bonnin, G. (Zitkála-Šá), Charles H. Fabens, and Matthew K. Sniffen. (1924). Oklahoma's Poor Rich Indians: An Orgy of Graft and Exploitation of the Five Civilized Tribes, Legalized Robbery. Office of the Indian Rights Association.
Bonnin, G. (1916). The Menace of Peyote. In Cathy N. Davidson & Ada Norris (eds.), Indian Stories, Legends, and Other Writings, 239-41. Penguin Books, 2003.
Bonnin, G. (1916) Letter to Arthur C. Parker, November 11. The Papers of the Society of American Indians, edited by John Larner. Scholarly Resources, 1986.
Bonnin, G. (1911). Bonnin to Ketcham, May 28. Bureau of Indian Catholic Missions, Raynor Memorial Libraries, Marquette University.
Bonnin, G. (1910). Bonnin to Ketcham, May 25. Bureau of Indian Catholic Missions. Raynor Memorial Libraries, Marquette University.
Bonnin, G. (1911). Letter to Ketcham, January 29. Bureau of Indian Catholic Missions. Raynor Memorial Libraries, Marquette University.
Bonnin, G. (1900). Impressions of an Indian Childhood. Atlantic Monthly 85(1), 37–47.
Burgess, M. (1917). Zitkála-Šá (Red Bird). Friends' Intelligencer May 19, 313.
Davidson, C. N. and A. Norris, eds. (2003). American Indian Stories, Legends, and Other Writings. Penguin Books.
Debo, A. (1972). And Still the Waters Run: The Betrayal of the Five Civilized Tribes. Princeton University Press.
Deer, S. (2015). The Beginning and End of Rape: Confronting Sexual Violence in Native America. University of Minnesota Press. https://doi.org/10.5749/minnesota/9780816696314.001.0001
Friesen, S. (2017). Lakota Performers in Europe: Their Culture and the Artifacts They Left Behind. University of Oklahoma Press.
Hafen, P. J., (Ed.) (2001). Dreams and Thunder: Stories, Poems, and The Sun Dance Opera. University of Nebraska Press.
Hanson, W. (1967). Sun Dance Land. Provo: J. Grant Stevenson.
Hearings before the Senate Subcommittee of the Committee of Indian Affairs of the House of Representatives on H. R. 2614 to Amend Sections 2139 and 2140 of the Revised Statutes and the Acts Amendatory thereof, and for Other Purposes. (1918). Government Printing Office.
Hertzberg, H. (1971). The Search for an American Indian Identity: Modern Pan-Indian Movements. Syracuse University Press.
Hollrah, P. E. M. (2004). Old Lady Trill, the Victory Yell: The Power of Women in Native American Literature. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203507834
Indian Woman in Capital to Fight Growing Use of Peyote Drug by Indians. (1918). February 17, Washington Times.
Lanternari, Vittorio. (1963) The Religions of the Oppressed: A Study of Modern Messianic Cults, trans. Lisa Sergio. Mentor Books.
Lewandowski, T. (2019). Changing Scholarly Interpretations of Gertrude Bonnin (Zitkála-Šá). Atlantis: Journal of the Spanish Association for Anglo-American Studies 41(1), 31–49. https://doi.org/10.28914/Atlantis-2019-41.1.02
Lewandowski, T. (2016). Red Bird, Red Power: The Life and Legacy of Zitkála-Šá. University of Oklahoma Press.
Newmark, J. (2012). Pluralism, Place, and Gertrude Bonnin's Counternativism from Utah to Washington, D.C. American Indian Quarterly 36(3), 318–47. https://doi.org/10.5250/amerindiquar.36.3.0318
Simmons, V. M. (2000). The Ute Indians of Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico. University of Colorado Press.
Slotkin, J. S. (1956). The Peyote Religion: A Study in Indian White Relations. The Free Press.
Smith, Catherine Parsons. (2001). An Operatic Skeleton on the Western Frontier: Zitkála-Šá, William F. Hanson, and The Sun Dance Opera. Women and Music 5, 1-30.
Standing Bear, L. (2006). Land of the Spotted Eagle. Bison Books.
Stewart, O. C. (1987). Peyote Religion: A History. University of Oklahoma Press.
Warrior, R. A. (1995). Tribal Secrets: Recovering American Intellectual Traditions. University of Minnesota Press.
Willard, W. (1991). The First Amendment, Anglo-Conformity and American Indian Religious Freedom. Wicazo Sa Review 7, 25-30. https://doi.org/10.2307/1409325
Wilson, T. P. (1985). The Underground Reservation: Osage Oil. University of Nebraska Press.
1. Reviewer's name: Undisclosed
Review Content: Undisclosed
Review Verified on Publons
2. Reviewer's name: Undisclosed
Review Content: Undisclosed
Review Verified on Publons
Handling Editor: Stan Bogdanov
Verified Editor Record on Publons